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Software Supply Chain Integrity Transparency & Trustworthiness and Related Community Efforts (Video)

By Blog, Workshop

The Spring ELISA Workshop, which took place on April 5-7 virtually, had more than 130 global registrants that learned more about the various working groups, hot topics related to enabling linux in safety applications and networked with ambassadors. If you missed the workshop, you can check out the materials here or subscribe to the new ELISA Youtube Channel and add these sessions to your watch list.

For the first-time ever, the ELISA Project featured a keynote presentation. Robert (Bob) Martin, Senior Principal Engineer at the MITRE Corporation, presented a keynote titled, “Software Supply Chain Integrity Transparency & Trustworthiness and Related Community Efforts.” Check out the presentation materials here or watch the video:

Trust, transparency, and integrity of software supply chains is at the center of many of the global security and safety challenges confronting communities around the world, including government agencies and the industries that support them or provide our critical infrastructure. The pandemic, utility ransomware attacks, the attack on SolarWinds, and the Ever Given have brought supply chain security, resilience, integrity, transparency, and trustworthiness into sharpened focus to a broader audience, and the many inadequacies have surfaced regarding timely access to reliable suppliers, software, and stocks of fuel, personal protective equipment, micro-electronics, medical devices, and food supplies, to name a few.

At the same time, the computerization of everything gave rise to pervasive cyber threats for more and more of the capabilities and infrastructure we and our organizations rely upon to function – including those stemming from vulnerabilities inherent in repurposed software of often dubious provenance and unknown pedigree. Further complicating this landscape is the increasingly globalized nature of the technology in these systems and lack of transparency. Adversaries large and small seek to inject themselves into every conceivable stage of software technology development, supply, and support, for disruptive, monetary and intelligence goals of their own.

This video will discuss the capabilities emerging across industry and government to assess and address the challenges to providing trustworthy software supplies with assurance of integrity and transparency to their composition, source, and veracity – the building blocks of software supply chains we can gain justifiable confidence in at scale and speed.

ELISA Spring 2022 Workshop Recap

By Blog, Workshop

Written by Paul Albertella, ELISA Project TSC member, Chair for Open Source Engineering Process Working Group and Consultant at Codethink

The ELISA Project hosted its annual Spring Workshop on April 5-7. It’s a combination of interesting talks and  productive working sessions on Enabling Linux in Safety Applications. I’ve attended a lot of these over the past three years, but for this one there was a perceptible shift towards  applying techniques and building solutions. If you couldn’t attend, here’s a quick recap of the workshop.

Day 1 opened with an interesting session from Red Hat’s Daniel Bristot and Gabriele Paoloni titled “Safety Monitors inside the Kernel” about a Realtime Verification Monitor concept, which they have been implementing for inclusion in the Linux kernel. This involves using ‘deterministic automata’ (definition here) modules within the kernel that are generated from directed graph models (defined using Graphviz/dot), which are then driven by events within the kernel using ‘instrumentation’ akin to systrace. The goal is to verify the expected behaviour of specific safety-related functionality within the kernel at runtime, and provide a way to trigger a ‘safe state’ mechanism if a problem is detected.

This was followed by a discussion about whether we should add a new ELISA working group with a focus on industrial and/or IoT safety use cases, led by Philipp Ahmann with Bosch GmbH. This discussion aimed to settle opinions about whether ELISA is a proper place to start such a working group, or if there are better communities to reach out to. Watch the video here:

Gabriele Paoloni then gave a talk about PAS 8296, which is an ISO initiative to provide more detailed guidance on applying the 26262 standard to pre-existing software.

The day ended with a keynote presentation by Bob Martin from the MITRE Corporation, which discussed the capabilities emerging across industry and government to assess and address the challenges to providing trustworthy software supplies with assurance of integrity and transparency to their composition, source, and veracity – the building blocks of software supply chains we can gain justifiable confidence in at scale and speed.

On Day 2, Red Hat’s Christoffer Hall-Frederiksen and Gabriele Paoloni were back again, talking about the work that they have done to document how Linux manages address space integrity. This was very informative, providing an accessible overview of how Linux manages processes, threads and memory.

After that, Alessandro Biasci, Raffaele Giannessi and Fabrizio Tronici from Huawei talked about their use of STPA to analyse dynamic memory functionality for Linux, and how some of the risks they identified might be addressed using memory tagging.

I then did a talk on ‘Refining the RAFIA Approach, ​​which addresses the challenges of creating safety argumentation and supporting evidence for systems involving open source software. This talk provided an update on how this approach is being applied and refined, both as part of ELISA workgroup activities and in Codethink’s projects.

The last session of the day focused on the Kernel Configuration database and was presented by Elana Copperman with Mobileye and Wenhui Zhang from Bytedance. This was an attempt to gather together information available on various kernel configuration items that may be relevant when addressing particular risks, together with some notes on best practice when using these. 

This was originally structured using Common Weakness Enumerations (CWEs), and there are plans to include security-related configs as well. One topic of discussion was extending it to include information about the performance impact of the configs, and building automated setups to measure this for reference ‘instances’. At present the ‘database’ itself is just a big Google spreadsheet, but there’s potential for this to become a useful resource. I have been prototyping a solution to migrate the content to a GitHub repository and render it as web pages, which may help.

Day 3 was dominated by two more working sessions. The first, on Mixed Criticality Processing, was a productive discussion which I co-chaired with Chris Temple from Arm. There was some good engagement from existing ELISA participants and new ones, and we ended with a clearer understanding of the challenges faced when safety functions co-exist on a system with non-safety functions, and with other safety functions. There was a broad consensus about how ELISA might provide useful guidance for how to tackle some of these, by describing design patterns for systems that include Linux, rather than focussing on what Linux needs in order to be ‘safe’.

The second session, which I also co-chaired with Philipp, focussed on a possible example of such a pattern, which has been developed for the Telltale use case by the Automotive Working Group using STPA. We talked through the safety concept and control structure, and how we might build on this and implement a reference version based on an existing AGL demo, perhaps using a readily-available hardware platform such as Raspberry Pi.

The last session of the conference is always a working session for next steps and goals that is led by the Linux Foundation’s Shuah Khan, Chair of the ELISA Technical Steering Committee. Shuah and the TSC are currently putting together insights from that discussion, so stay tuned to learn more about the focuses for next quarter. 

If any of these pique your interest, you can go to the new ELISA Project Youtube Channel to see some of these videos or click on the schedule to check out the PPT presentations.

Requirements Traceability using Code Coverage

By Blog, Workshop

ELISA Project members will come together for a quarterly Spring Workshop on April 5-7 to learn about the latest developments, working group updates, share best practices and collaborate to drive rapid innovation across the industry. Hosted online, this workshop is free and open to the public. If you haven’t yet checked out the schedule, click here.

As we prepare for the Spring Workshop, we’re taking a look at the most popular sessions from the November event. A full recap by Philipp Ahmann, ELISA Project Ambassador and TSC member, can be found here.

One of the most popular sessions was presented by Rachel Sibley, Senior Principal Software Quality Engineer at Red Hat, titled “Requirements Traceability using Code Coverage.”

In this video, Rachel talks about the existing techniques we use for kernel code coverage and how we would like to apply them towards requirements traceability and verification for Red Hat’s Automotive Initiative. By embedding both code coverage analysis and targeted testing during the verification stage using existing tooling, it will enable us to improve our test coverage starting with requirements. You can watch the full video here:

To see the other presentations and videos from the November 2021 Workshop, click here: To attend the Spring 2022 Workshop, register here:

The ELISA Project Strengthens its Focus on Automotive Use Cases with Expertise from New Members Automotive Intelligence and Control of China, LOTUS Cars and ZTE

By Announcement, Workshop

Register for the ELISA Spring Workshop on April 5-7 to Learn More

SAN FRANCISCO – March 23, 2022 –  Today, the ELISA (Enabling Linux in Safety Applications) Project, an open source initiative that aims to create a shared set of tools and processes to help companies build and certify Linux-based safety-critical applications and systems, announced a stronger ecosystem focused on automotive use cases with the addition of the Automotive Intelligence and Control of China (AICC), LOTUS Cars and ZTE.

“The ELISA ecosystem continues to grow globally with strong support from automakers across Asia and Europe,” Kate Stewart, Vice President of Dependable Embedded Systems at The Linux Foundation. “By leveraging the expertise of current and new ELISA Project members, we are defining the best practices for use of Linux in the automobiles of the future. “

Linux is used in all major industries because it can enable faster time to market for new features and take advantage of the quality of the code development processes. Launched in February 2019 by the Linux Foundation, ELISA works with Linux kernel and safety communities to agree on what should be considered when Linux is to  be used in safety-critical systems. The project has several dedicated working groups that focus on providing resources for System integrators to apply and use to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively on their systems.

The Automotive Working Group discusses the conditions and prerequisites the automotive sector needs to integrate Linux into a safety critical system. The group, which includes collaboration from ADIT, Arm, Codethink, Evidence (a part of Huawei), Red Hat and Toyota, focuses on actual use cases from the Automotive domain to derive the technical requirements to the kernel as a basis for investigation within the Architecture Workgroup and to serve as a blueprint for actual projects in the future. There is also close collaboration with Automotive Grade Linux, which results in a meta-ELISA layer enhancing the instrument cluster demo for safety relevant parts. As leaders in the automotive industry, AICC, LOTUS Cars and ZTE will most likely join the Automotive Working Group.

New Global Automotive Expertise

As the industry’s leading ICV computing infrastructure company, AICC is committed to providing OEMs with intelligent vehicle computing platforms and digital bases for empowering them the differentiated application development ability. In November 2021, AICC released iVBB2.0 series products, which takes ICVOS as the core product, then develops ICVHW, ICVSEC, ICVEC, and other product units. Currently, iVBB2.0 has been delivered to many OEMs and achieved collaboration on cross-platform development, co-built SDV, multi-chip distributed deployment, data security policy deployment and car cloud collaborative computing.

“Becoming a member of the ELISA Project, is in line with the high real-time, high-security, and high-reliability commitment that AICC has always made,” said Dr. Jin Shang, CEO & CTO of AICC. “This will provide a guarantee for the mass production development of AICC’s ICV computing infrastructure platform from security and quality perspectives. Based on the elements, tools, and processes shared by ELISA, AICC will build safety-critical applications and systems relating to Linux requirements, leading to widely used and internationally influential products.”

LOTUS Cars, which was honored as “Manufacturer of the Year” at the News UK Motor Awards in 2021, is focused on the safety of intelligent driving. It is a world-famous manufacturer of sports cars and racing cars noted for their light weight and fine handling characteristics.

“Functional safety is critical to intelligent driving,” said Jie Deng, LOTUS Cars In-Vehicle Operating System Lead. “LOTUS focuses on ‘track-level intelligent drive‘ and is committed to ensuring that drivers stay away from risks through active redundancy of software and hardware. We are very excited to join the ELISA Project and work with industry experts to productize Linux-based safety-critical systems for more drivers to experience intelligent driving in a highly safe and fun way.”

ZTE Corporation is a global leader in telecommunications and information technology.  Founded in 1985, the company has been committed to providing innovative technologies and integrated solutions for operators, government and consumers from over 160 countries. ZTE has established 11 state-of-the-art global R&D centers and 5 intelligent manufacturing bases.

Relying on key technologies and core capabilities in the communications field, ZTE Automotive Electronics is committed to becoming a digital vehicle infrastructure capability provider and an independent high-performance partner in China, facilitating the intelligent and networked development in the automobile field. ZTE has been dedicated to GoldenOS R&D for more than 20 years. On this basis, ZTE proposes the integrated automotive operating system solution of high-performance embedded Linux and high security microkernel OS/Hypervisor, covering all scenarios of intelligent vehicle control, intelligent driving, intelligent cockpit and intelligent network connectivities.

These new members join ADIT, AISIN AW CO., Arm, Automotive Grade Linux, Banma, BMW Car IT GmbH, Codethink, Elektrobit, Horizon Robotics, Huawei Technologies, Intel, Toyota, Kuka, Linuxtronix. Mentor, NVIDIA, SUSE, Suzuki, Wind River, OTH Regensburg and Toyota.

The Spring Workshop

ELISA Project members will come together for its quarterly Spring Workshop on April 5-7 to learn about the latest developments, working group updates, share best practices and collaborate to drive rapid innovation across the industry. Hosted online, this workshop is free and open to the public. Details and registration information can be found here.

Workshop highlights include:

  • A keynote by Robert Martin, Senior Principal Engineer at MITRE Corporation, about “Software Supply Chain Integrity Transparency & Trustworthiness and Related Community Efforts.” The presentation will discuss the capabilities emerging across industry and government to assess and address the challenges to providing trustworthy software supplies with assurance of integrity and transparency to their composition, source, and veracity – the building blocks of software supply chains we can gain justifiable confidence in at scale and speed.
  • A session by Christopher Temple, Lead Safety & Reliability Systems Architect at Arm Germany GmbH, and Paul Albertella, Consultant at Codethink, about “Mixed-Criticality Processing on Linux.” This talk will help create a common understanding of mixed-criticality processing on Linux and the related problems, collect and discuss alternatives for addressing the problems.
  • A discussion led by Philipp Ahmann, Business Development Manager at Robert Bosch GmbH, about a new Industrial IoT (IIoT) Working Group within ELISA. The open forum will allow the community to discuss framing lightweight SOUP safety standards, but focusing on those touch points which are not fully covered by other use case driven working groups.

Speakers include thought leaders from ADIT GmbH, Arm, Bosch GmbH, Bytedance, Codethink, Huawei, Mobileye, The Linux Foundation, MITRE Corporation and Red Hat. Check out the schedule and register to attend the workshop today.

For more information about ELISA, visit

About The Linux Foundation

The Linux Foundation is the organization of choice for the world’s top developers and companies to build ecosystems that accelerate open technology development and commercial adoption. Together with the worldwide open source community, it is solving the hardest technology problems by creating the largest shared technology investment in history. Founded in 2000, The Linux Foundation today provides tools, training and events to scale any open source project, which together deliver an economic impact not achievable by any one company. More information can be found at

The Linux Foundation has registered trademarks and uses trademarks. For a list of trademarks of The Linux Foundation, please see its trademark usage page: Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.


Deterministic Construction Service

By Blog, Workshop

This blog previously ran on the Codethink website. Click here for more content like this.

Paul Albertella spoke at the ELISA November 2021 Workshop about how Codethink’s Deterministic Construction Service achieved ISO 26262 certification. In this article he explains the purpose of DCS and how it paves the way towards one of Codethink’s longer-term goals: establishing a viable approach to safety certification for Linux-based operating systems. Read more or watch the video from the ELISA Workshop below.


Deterministic Construction Service (DCS) is Codethink’s design pattern for constructing critical software components. It defines a controlled process, based on an automated continuous integration (CI) workflow, for constructing and managing changes to software components, and to the tools used to build and verify them. A reference implementation of this design pattern was recently assessed by Exida and qualified using the ISO 26262 safety standard for use with automotive safety applications up to ASIL D.

DCS was made possible by many years of work on construction and integration tooling at Codethink, and builds directly on the previous efforts of open-source projects such as Baserock, BuildStream, Freedesktop SDK and Reproducible Builds. These projects have helped to establish and refine both the principles that inform DCS and the techniques used in its implementation.

As a tool, DCS is an important foundation for building a safety-certifiable Linux-based OS, but in creating and certifying it, Codethink had another goal: to validate the safety approach that we have been developing in collaboration with Exida and ELISA. This approach is called RAFIA, which is an acronym of Risk Analysis, Fault Injection and Automation); it was introduced in a previous article and further discussed in a second article.

Goals and principles

The goals of DCS are:

  • To construct software in such a way that it is consistently reproducible
  • To verify this property for a given set of inputs, for a given instantiation of DCS
  • To make use of this property to inform verification and impact analysis
  • To automate all of this as part of a continuous integration (CI) workflow

Reproducible, in this context, means that the outputs of the construction process (a binary fileset) for a given set of inputs (source code, dependencies, build instructions, etc) for the target software (the components that we are constructing and verifying) must be demonstrably identical. That is to say, re-running the DCS process without explicitly changing any of the inputs, must produce exactly the same set of binary outputs every time.

Inputs, in this context, means everything that is required to construct and verify the software, which includes:

  • the target software and its dependencies,
  • the actions required to construct and verify these,
  • the tools used to perform these actions, and
  • the execution environments for these actions

An instantiation of DCS is an implementation of the design pattern using a specific set of tools, configuration and infrastructure. The reference implementation, for example, is based on Codethink’s managed Gitlab service and its associated servers, resources (e.g. CI runners), and configurations (e.g. access control), together with a set of hosted git repositories. These repositories contain the component tools used to realise DCS, the build and test inputs for these – including safety-related criteria and tests for the DCS design pattern – and the automation scripts that implement the overall service logic.

DCS control structure

In order to have reproducible outputs, we must have clearly defined and consistent inputs. This means having fine-grained change and revision control over the corresponding files and their organisation into components, configurations, target systems, etc.

It is essential to track all inputs, including (but not limited to): the source code of the target software; any other build-time dependencies required to construct it; any run-time dependencies required to verify it; the configuration, calibration or test data used to inform or verify its behaviour; the tools used to perform construction and verification actions; the execution environments within which these actions are performed; the criteria that are used to evaluate verification actions; and instructions detailing the actions required to provide, build or verify all of these as part of an automated workflow.

We also need fine-grained control over our construction processes, which means that build actions must not only be consistently performed, but must be executed in a controlled environment to avoid the introduction of unspecified or unplanned inputs into the build process.


DCS verifies that we have control over our construction process and all of its inputs by comparing the binary outputs of two completed construction pipelines (automated executions of the specified construction steps and actions). If the results are identical, then the inputs and build actions may be considered under control. If the results differ, then the cause of the difference must be investigated, to determine whether an unspecified or uncontrolled input is involved in the construction process.

Once we have control over our process and inputs, we can use the same principle to inform impact analysis for the constructed software. If a change to one of the inputs has no effect on the output binaries, then we can be confident that there will be no impact on the software’s behaviour or properties, which may avoid unnecessary re-testing. Similarly, if we were expecting a change to have an effect (e.g. to fix a bug), then we can know that this will not be the case without having to re-test it.

These ‘no change’ cases may seem insignificant at first sight – after all, why would we want to make a change that has no effect? – but when maintaining complex software systems, the practice of regularly and systematically applying atomic changes can be invaluable. Not all changes to an input will affect the output for a given construction, because the source code may have conditional compilation sections, which are not used for a specific build. By atomically applying individual changes over time, instead of applying a large change set in one go, we are able to determine when a specific change does have an effect and use this to guide our impact analysis.

This becomes even more valuable if we are using artifact caching as part of a construction process. By storing the artifacts (binary outputs and intermediate objects) produced by previous build actions in a shared cache, we can dramatically reduce build times for large software components. But how can we be confident that these cached artifacts directly relate to our input files? Different caching solutions approach this in different ways, but by periodically rebuilding from source (e.g. with a weekend rebuild pipeline), and comparing the result with a build that uses cached artifacts, we can independently verify the integrity of our cache, regardless of the cache indexing strategy.

We can use the same principles to show that the property of reproducibility is independent of the specific instantiation of DCS – including host hardware, operating systems, compilers and other tools. This allows us to confirm that a new instantiation of DCS meets the design pattern requirements, by comparing the binary outputs for a reference build.

This approach can be extended to verify that a change to a tool used as part of the DCS instantiation, or as an input to the construction process, has no effect on the output. For tools that we expect to have no direct impact on the outputs, this is a confirmation of our analysis. For tools that we do expect to affect outputs (e.g. compilers), this is a confirmation that an upgraded tool has not introduced an unexpected change – or if a change is detected, to drive our analysis of its potential impact.

Using RAFIA for certification

Codethink’s DCS reference implementation was certified by Exida based on the ISO 26262 tool qualification requirements. This was achieved using safety argumentation that was developed using RAFIA, and a safety lifecycle built around the DCS controlled process itself.

We used STPA to analyse the risks associated with the specific purpose of DCS and to define safety requirements in the form of constraints. These were then used to derive tests to verify that a given DCS instantiation satisfies the applicable requirements, or to specify process requirements that must be applied by the user of DCS and verified as part of a safety assessment. We also identified loss scenarios that might lead to violation of constraints and developed fault injection tests to show that our mitigations were effective.

By applying this controlled process to all inputs to the certification assessment, we were able to demonstrate that we had addressed all of the applicable requirements in the standard, and provide evidence to support this. Controlled inputs included documentation and requirements as well as the build inputs. This included the documented STPA results, for which we developed a YAML data structure and validation tools, which have been shared in a new open source repository. For the reference implementation, all inputs were stored in git repositories managed by Gitlab.

This allowed us to map evidence to individual certification criteria based on the applicable safety standard (ISO 26262 for DCS). For each of these, we documented how the criteria were satisfied and provided links to documents, source code, tests or CI-generated output that provided supporting evidence.

By tracking all certification criteria, assertions, and evidence in the same manner as the software, all potential changes could be managed by the same CI-driven change control process. We could use CI to verify that supporting evidence links are valid and up-to-date, and trace requirements to tests, and to test results. We were also able to produce human-readable reports for safety assessors directly from the stored and generated evidence for a given release.

Role in safety and future work

As we have seen, DCS allows us to:

  • Verify that we have control of all of our inputs, including dependencies
  • Avoid retesting or re-validating unchanged binaries
  • Identify and investigate differences when changes are detected
  • Verify that our process is isolated from environmental disturbances
  • Show that tool upgrades do not impact previously validated binaries

But how can DCS contribute to a broader safety process? And how will this help us to certify a Linux-based OS?

Safety standards such as ISO 26262 identify the key engineering processes that are expected to be used in the development of safety-relevant software, as well as organisational processes and controls (e.g. quality and safety management) that are required to ensure that the engineering processes are correctly and consistently followed. However, the standards provide only limited guidance on implementing such processes, as every organisation is expected to have its own particular approach and tools.

A deterministic construction process provides a foundation for many of these engineering processes, as as well as a way to monitor and enforce the required organisational controls. The DCS design pattern defines a consistent, automated and verifiable foundation for implementing a safety lifecycle for large-scale and complex software components. It was developed with Linux and open source software in mind, but the principles can be applied to any software, and many aspects of the RAFIA process can be applied to hardware components as well.

DCS and RAFIA enable software components and their associated documentation, as well as the required engineering and organisational process criteria and automation tools, to be managed and maintained in close alignment with the software development process. They also support key processes as follows:

Change Management and Configuration Management are, as we have seen, fundamental parts of the DCS design pattern, and also key topics in safety standards. DCS allows us to verify that we have control over all changes to our software and its configurations. This can be especially important when components or component dependencies are provided by a supply chain.

Verification of the software (e.g. through testing and static analysis) is required to confirm that it satisfies both its functional requirements and its safety requirements. DCS gives us control over all of the inputs to verification actions, as well as the tools and execution environments that are used to perform them. Using it as part of RAFIA also allows us identify and specify safety requirements for components and tools, and to manage these requirements in close coordination with the software.

Validation of the software as part of its target system is required to confirm that it fulfils its intended purpose in the system, including its role in fulfilling the system’s safety goals. This may require the software to be constructed for one or more system configurations (CPU architecture, hardware configurations, etc) and deployed to a specific test environment (e.g. a test rig). DCS provides a way to manage this, and RAFIA provides a way to validate safety mitigations at the system level, by defining fault injection cases for software components.

Impact analysis is required to determine whether a change to software may impact the target system’s safety goals. DCS can be used to drive this process for software components, by identifying when changes actually have an impact on the deployed binaries, and helping to identify the specific change that resulted in this impact.

Tool qualification is used to provide confidence in the use of software tools. As demonstrated by the DCS reference implementation, RAFIA can provide a basis for qualifying and validating open-source toolchains, and DCS can be used to control the specific source and configuration of tools that are used. DCS can also help to classify new tools by determining their impact on the constructed output, and to validate tool upgrades by determining their impact on a known and verified previous build.

On this basis, we believe that DCS represents a solid foundation for defining and constructing a Linux-based OS for a safety-related use case. Furthermore, the qualification of DCS demonstrates that the RAFIA approach can be used to provide the required safety argumentation and evidence to achieve a formal safety certification for tools based on open source software; we are confident that this can be extended to support the same goal for a safety-related system.

Established Working Group Updates

By Blog, Working Group, Workshop

Planning is currently underway for the ELISA Project Spring Workshop, which takes place virtually on April 5-7. If you haven’t yet, you can submit a CFP here (by Friday, March 4) or register to attend here.

As we prepare for the next workshop, we’ll be taking a look at the most popular sessions from the November event. A full recap by Philipp Ahmann, ELISA Project Ambassador and TSC member can be found here.

In this video, Shuah Khan, ELISA Project Chair of the Technical Steering Committee, kicks off the November Workshop with an overview of the TSC and introductions to a few of the Working Group Chairs for updates. Watch the video to learn more about the focused working groups for Safety Architecture, Tool Investigation and Code Improvement, Medical Devices and Automotive.

To join a working group click here:

To attend the April 2022 Workshop, register here:

Linux in Safety Systems

By Blog, Workshop

Planning is currently underway for the ELISA Project Spring Workshop, which takes place virtually on April 5-7. If you haven’t yet, you can submit a CFP here (by Friday, March 4) or register to attend here.

As we prepare for the next workshop, we’ll be taking a look at the most popular sessions from the November event. A full recap by Philipp Ahmann, ELISA Project Ambassador and TSC member can be found here.

In this video, Christopher Temple, Lead Safety & Reliability Architect at Arm Germany GmbH, provides an overview of the challenges and solutions of Linux in safety systems.

ELISA Spring 2022 Workshop

By Blog, Workshop

Today, the ELISA Project is excited to announce the Spring 2022 Workshop will take place virtually on April 5-7 and has opened a Call for Proposals (CFP) as well as registration.

The ELISA Workshop series is focused on the exchange of ideas and feedback from the Linux kernel and Safety communities, as productive collaboration to make tangible progress toward achieving the mission and goals of the ELISA Project. The workshops also provide project and working group overviews for new community members who are interested in advancing topics relevant to functional safety and Linux applications.

Submit a CFP

To encourage open collaboration and stimulate discussions, we invite our members, developers, and industry experts to submit a speaking proposal by March 4. Submit a speaking proposal here:

Register today

It is free to attend ELISA Workshops but we require registration. Register here.

Missed the November Workshop?

Philipp Ahmann, ELISA Project Ambassador and Technical Steering Committee member, recapped the successful event and highlighted a few of the sessions. You can read the blog or watch the videos here.

If you have any questions about the event, please reach out to

Recap of the ELISA November Workshop

By Blog, Workshop

Written by Philipp Ahmann, ELISA Project Ambassador and TSC member

The 8th ELISA Workshop, which took place on November 8-10, had 158 registrants that learned more about the various working groups and networked with ambassadors. Participants were active and stable in the technical discussions, which helped plan for next year, and proved that there is continuous interest and motivations in these topics. Additionally, new ideas were shared and can be considered as sources of inspiration and for critical thinking with e.g. talks about STPA, the z-model or open source and the community problem along with new approaches to safety and importance of processes and testing.

Overall, ELISA workshops have more of a conference character presenting major achievements and results of achievements from the last quarter. Interested newcomers as well as community participants receive a very good status update in which direction ELISA moves forward on its way to enable Linux in safety applications. 

On the other hand, this brilliant forum to sync up and align in a virtual format, misses a bit of the in-person discussion and brainstorming that made ELISA’s first workshops so enjoyable. With a community spread across the world longer working sessions are seldom and almost not possible. Prime time slots are used to align to reach as many people as possible.

As this year’s workshops come to a close, we hope that travelling and hybrid workshops become possible again. In this type of format, the core community can take joint working sessions, while talks and presentations can still attract newcomers and other interested to get an overview about what is going on in the community and what to target next. We hope to see you in-person next year if possible. 

In case you missed the November virtual workshop, let us take a look at a few selected sessions from the conference. 

Day 1 started with the newcomer and welcome session. It provided an overview about what Linux is and how safety comes into picture to form the name ELISA. The statistics shown during the talk on the usage of Linux in industry are quite impressive and speak for themselves. Linux is everywhere. (Or almost everywhere.)

Additionally, new details about two new working groups were presented – Linux Features for Safety Critical Systems Working Group and Open Source Engingeering Process Working Group. Originally, these two groups started as one but as the group grew and evolved two streams were observed and needed. Both are in good hands, with Paul Albertella from Codethink, which will continue to focus on the actual open source development process and Elana Copperman from Mobileye/Intel will start concentrating on Linux features for safety-critical systems.

How important such Linux features and development processes are could be slightly depicted from the presentation about Linux in Safety Systems explained by Christopher Temple from arm. He illustrates quite well which different levels of complexity a system could have. He also reminded the audience that there can be a difference between simply following a safety integrity standard for the necessary processes and actually creating a safe product. It is interesting to see that you may be able to show standard conformance without having safety properly implemented and creating a safe system which is not certifiable or in conformance with a safety standard.

On the second day the slides about Certification Using the New Approach to Safety presented by Paul Albertella showed that modern safety certification and assessments need to bring a good tool support towards tool support and automation along with proper tool classification and qualification as a major step to achieve efficient certification and generation of evidence, irrespective if you are running proprietary or open source software. 

In another session Lukas Bulwahn from Elektrobit helped the participants on understanding the z-model in which the challenge on pre-existing software is illustrated, where a logical model would be to write requirements, go over to integration and verification to derive software architectural design, leading to software unit verification to finally create a “z” by moving to the originally existing Software unit design and implementation. This can help to approach existing stacks which do not fall into strict recommendations such as demanded by e.g. ISO26262. This said, it has to be kept in mind that the “z” fills the gap and can create a complete “v” in the end, although you may run into issues during an ASPICE assessment.

Day two was concluded by Shaun Mooney from Codethink, who gave insights on how to use STPA for ISO26262. STPA has been used within the medical devices work group since a long time and recently found its way also into the automotive work group, where it serves as an alternative to a traditional HARA. A very important element of the STPA, beside others, is the identification of unsafe control actions (UCA) to unveil potential harms/hazards and risks in a very structured and visual way.

Day three was a nice mixture of technical insights into the Linux kernel and new approaches and directions towards safety qualification of Linux application. The strong demand to consider both Linux software development within the community and the strict regulations by safety integrity standards to come to a certifiable product, were brought to the point by Lukas Bulwahn’s talk. It was thought to encourage critical thinking on safety integrity standards and the community problem. Let us hope that the work of ELISA can make a difference and the effort we take will direct in the solution of this problem, eventually even with updated or new safety integrity standards, which include state of the art software development process and quality measures, so much needed for complex systems.

As for the previous workshops the last session wraps up and includes the goal settings for the next quarter along with the request to not let the discussions stop here…

If you reach this point of reading the blog post, you seem to be really interested in joining the ELISA community, so don’t miss to register to your mailing list of choice.

Short TL:DR summarizing words about the workshop:

  • Less registered people, but very stable number of attendees during the workshop and on level of last workshop
  • Good “take home” messages letting you think about the challenges of Linux and open source communities to approach safety integrity standards
  • New approaches in fields of architectural analysis, tools, development process, testing and engineering show the demands where Linux and open source need to go different ways and where safety integrity standards need to evolve to keep up with the complexity of software written by a large scale community.
  • ELISA community would benefit from a hybrid approach enabling in person working sessions to let the workshop be a workshop and have less conference style.
  • The ELISA community grows and reaches a point where harmonization is needed. Brainstorming times are over and everybody shares concepts and proposals how to achieve the goal to enable Linux in safety applications.

Videos and recordings of the workshop presentations can be found here

ELISA’s New Linux Features for Safety-Critical Systems Working Group

By Blog, Working Group, Workshop

Written by Elana Copperman, ELISA project ambassador, Chair of the Linux Features for Safety-Critical Systems Working Group and System Safety Architect at Mobileye (Intel)

The Linux Features for Safety-Critical Systems (LFSCS) WG aims to feed into the OSEP and other WGs, working together as a team.  LFSCS invites engineers, architects and integrators who actually develop and deploy Linux-based safety-critical systems to contribute from their practical experience and knowledge.  In particular, to identify existing Linux kernel features that may be leveraged for use in safety-critical systems.  

For example:

  1. Mechanisms for protection of various memory types;  e.g. protection from faults due to uninitialized variables or stack overflow.
  2. Dynamic analysis for multi-threaded systems; e.g. tests based on tools such as TSAN or ASAN.
  3. Kernel profiling using ebpf-based tools; e.g.  perf-tools or bpftrace
  4. AER (Advanced Error Reporting) for fault handling; e.g. PCIe fault handling
  5. Safety extensions to Linux drivers; e.g. fault handling support and bridging the gap between hardware-based safety features and application layer fault handling.

The WG mailing list is open to registration here, and we are seeing an amazing group of contributors who can demonstrate use of such features in real systems, and help ELISA to learn from these experiences.  Initially, we will investigate existing features but will also propose enhancements to such features and to work as a community to design / implement / deploy kernel patches.  The goal of such patches will be to help make those features more amenable for use in safety critical systems.  Our Github playground is here.

The alliance with ELISA, and with the new Open Source Engineering Process Working Group in particular, is a critical aspect of this effort.  We will be working together to help ensure that those patches and features can be used by designers and integrators producing safety critical systems.

 The scope of this WG does not include safety qualification or any safety claims on how the integrator can or should use these features or patches.  The only claims that would be made are a description of the feature and its functional impact.

The WG will be formally kicked off at the upcoming ELISA workshop (November 8-10). We will be giving an overview of the working group and answer any questions on November 8 at 3 pm CET.  We will be scheduling weekly meetings following the workshop.  If the technical challenge of enabling real change in deploying open source Linux-based software for safety critical systems excites you, come join and help us meet the challenges!

You can still register for the Fall workshop, which is being held virtually and is free to attend. All registrants will be able to watch the sessions on-demand. Register here today!